The first step to treating glaucoma is eye drops. There are several different kinds of drops used.
• Prostaglandins relax the muscles in the eye's interior structure to allow better outflow of fluids, therefore reducing buildup of intraocular pressure
• Beta Blockers work to reduce aqueous fluid production in the eye
• Alpha-adrenergic Agonists work to decrease aqueous fluid production
• Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors decrease aqueous fluid production and are often used in combination with other anti-glaucoma drugs
• Parasympathomimetics cause the pupils to constrict to allow aqueous fluid to drain from the eye in angle-closure glaucoma
• Epinephrine works simultaneously to decrease the production of aqueous fluid and to increase the outflow of fluid from the eye
• Doctors use Hyperosmotic Agents to immediately reduce intraocular pressure in one-time use emergency situations
• Combination glaucoma drugs include two different anti-glaucoma medicines in the same bottle
If eye drops do not work for treatment, then laser eye surgery is the alternative. In this case, eye surgeons would use laser trabeculoplasty to treat open-angle glaucoma. During the outpatient procedure, the patient receives a numbing eye drop, then the surgeon uses a laser beam to open the clogged drainage canals. Physicians require follow up treatment and testing after this procedure.